Towards sustainability biogas

http://www.anaerobic-digestion.com/html/low_cost_indian_biogas_system.php 

http://wn.com/Energy_from_Cow_Waste_Cow_dung_energy_-ecoideasnet
http://www.nabard.org/fileupload/DataBank/TechnicalDigest/ContentEnglish/issue8td_12.pdf
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From http://www.nie.ac.in/crest/BiomassTechnology.htm

Introduction

Energy from Biomass accounts for a large share of the total energy production in rural and urban India. Wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of people, particularly the poor.Wood is widely used inefficiently as a fuel in rural homes any many rural industries (food processing, drying etc.). One way to arrest deforestation is to design and deploy fuel-efficient devices which will conserve the fuel wood. Traditional biomass devices have poor thermal efficiency. To conserve fuel there is need to develop, construct and disseminate fuel – efficient devices.

 

Small Cook Stoves 

Biogas generated by bio-methanization of cow dung. 30kg cow dung can generate 1m3. Floating drum digestor or fixed dome digestor type construction can be made.

Large Cook Stoves

Cooking in hostels, hotels, and canteens come under this category. Stoves used are 2+1, 1+1, and single pan types. The stove is completely built using locally available materials like Bricks, Red soil, sand etc. and local manpower. This stove gives the advantage of adequate area for heat transfer at the same time providing hot water for subsequent cooking operations. Since cooking on a large scale gets done in a number of batches, the hot water hastens the cooking and thus the stove gives multiple advantages of needing less fuel at the same time requiring shorter cooking time. This stove gives a thermal efficiency of 40-45%.(Technology-CST,IISC)

Bath Water Stoves


Fuel efficient Bath stoves can be built for meeting hot water requirements. The combustion is carried out similar to that in the ASTRA Ole and the large cook stoves. Thermal efficiency is 40-45% . The stove is built using locally available material and manpower.(Technology-CST,IISC)

Biomass Based Drier


Recognizing the need for A drier for dehydrating processed food at remote places where there is no access to grid electricity, a biomass fuelled, and thermally efficient drier suitable for small scale drying in rural areas. This design has been successfully field tested for areca, cardamom, and cocoa beans. Also the drier can be successfully deployed for dehydration of fruits and vegetables. (Technology- CST, IISc)

Kitchen Waste Compact Biogas Plant


Kitchen waste compact biogas plant, uses kitchen waste which are daily available at households for the production of biogas, which can be used for cooking. The smallest unit consists of two PVC tanks of 1000Lts and 750Lts and generates 0.6 M3 of gas everyday.(Technology -ARTI, Pune,)

Biogas Plant


Biogas from this plant is generated by methanization of cow dung, suitable or cooking ,thermal applications, & electricity generation. 30kg cow dung can generate1m3 biogas Floating drum digester or fixed dome digester type construction can be made.

Biomass Gasifier Plant

A biomass gasifier system involves partial combustion and reduction operation of biomass with air under sub-stoichiometric conditions, resulting in generation of producer gas. The Producer gas generated can be used in the existing DG plants for power generation with 80%(gas) and 20%(diesel) ratio or in gas engine with 100% gas without use of any conventional fuel. The plant can be designed from 100 KW up to 200 KW capacity. Fuel can be any solid biomass with bulk density over 250 Kg/m3 (Technology- CGPL, IISC, BANGALORE)

Charcoal from leafy litter

Urban solid waste consisting of leaf litter, trimmings of trees and hedges, and paper waste can be charred in this kiln. For a load of 6 kg leaves per batch 2kg char can be obtained. Briquettes can be made from the obtained char. (Technology : ARTI,Pune)

Hand operated Briquetting Machine

The Charcoal produced in the above kiln is powdered and mixed with suitable binder. Then load it to this briquetting machine and extruded into char briquettes. (Technology : ARTI,Pune)

Fuel Efficient Charcoal Cooker


It is a non-pressurized cooker in which the char-briquettes are used as fuel. The cooker has a stainless steel body with a built-in charcoal brazier. 100gm of charcoal is sufficient to cook food in 45 min. it is available in 3 sizes. (Technology: ARTI, Pune.)

Pot Drier


Pot drier is used to dehydrate processed food and fruits in small quantities. It is made of mud and is fabricated by local artisans. This drier can be kept on “Astra’’ cook stove & drying can be carried out.

Earthen Pot Filter

In earthen pot, the clay has the capacity of absorbing bacteria which was not happen in stainless steel, aluminium and other water storage containers.

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